The burning of coal for 1 hour produces 2,043,293 mJ.
Out of this quantity, the following go into the environment:
1. With smoke gases – 204,324 mJ
2. With water cooling the turbine condenser – 960,324 mJ
The power of the waste heat flow – 324 mW
With smoke gases, the following go into the atmosphere for 1 hour of unit operation:
1. Carbon dioxide СО2 – 210 t
2. Water vapour Н2О – 18 t
3. Sulphur oxides SОx – 2.52 t
4. Nitrogen oxides NOx – 1.18 t
5. Dust – 0.065 t
In addition to the substances listed in the smoke gases, in the form of small components there are also benzopyrene, hydrogen sulphide, vanadium oxides, mercury, etc.
The aim of the unit reconstruction is the capture of all components of the smoke gases through their separation and conversion of the waste heat into useful operation.
The first stage involves cooling of the smoke gases from the condensate of the turbine. When their temperature drops to 55 – 600С, the moisture contained in them condenses and absorbs SO2, small disperse coal dust and other admixtures.
The capture of the rest of the heat of the smoke gases is performed in the next heat exchanger, in which a feed pump feeds liquefied СО2at high pressure. The formed cold vapours are directed at high pressure into a heat exchanger located at the turbine outlet. In it, they increase their enthalpy, causing partial condensation of the exhaust steam from the turbine, after which they are fed into the inlet of a gas utilisation turbine actuating the turbocompresor. The compressor is designed to increase the pressure of the dry residue of the smoke gases for their further separation.
The separation of the gases into light and heavy components is performed using a vortex effect. However, to this end, in addition to increasing the pressure, it is also necessary to reduce their temperature. For this reason, the gases, going out of the compressor, go through a heat exchanger, cooled by the СО2 vapours going out of the utilisation turbine. After all of that, the dry residue of the smoke gases, cooled down and at increased pressure, is directed into a vortex tube, and СО2 – into the smokestack.
Owing to combined de Laval nozzles, the velocity of the tangential movement of the gases in the vortex tube coming close to the speed of sound. As a result, there follows a break in the flow. The light components, represented by nitrogen, residual oxygen and nitrogen monoxide, gather in the middle of the separation chamber and leave it through a diaphragm located at the upper end of the vortex tube. Then, they come to the inlet of the second utilisation turbine, located on the shaft shared with the turbocharger.
As the adiabatic expansion of the light components in the turbine reduces not only the pressure, but also the temperature, at this stage there occurs capture of NO, whose content in the smoke gases reaches 90%. To this end, the light components go through an ionisation chamber. In it, the residual oxygen is converted into ozone, which immediately becomes involved in a reaction with NO. NO2 formed in the course of the reaction condenses at a temperature lower than 210С and is discharged outside and collected in an isothermal tank.
The heavy components of the smoke gases in the process of separation gather around the wall of the separation chamber of the vortex tube and leave the tube through a choke located at its lower end. After that, they go into the compressor of a refrigeration plant, cooled using condensate from the turbine. In the heat exchanger, where the heavy components are cooled using nitrogen going out of an ionization chamber, there occurs liquefaction of СО2. The liquefied СО2 at high pressure is fed to the second condenser of the smoke gases using a feed pump, and the nitrogen goes into the smokestack, where it mixes with СО2 and they together exit it. The remaining heavy components, represented by argon, neon, krypton and xenon, are fed to an installation for their separation. Thus, the cycle of complete capture of the smoke gases is closed.
The economic effect of such unit reconstruction consists of the complete capture of the heat of the smoke gases and its conversion into useful work. Its cost is also covered by the production of NO2 and noble gases. The environmental side of the project comprises the extraction of NOх, SOх, dust and toxic and carcinogenic components from the smoke gases. However, the actual environmental effect is much bigger. By releasing СО2 in the atmosphere at a temperature much lower than that of the environment, we create comfortable conditions for the people in the area of the TPP and give СО2 the opportunity to be fully absorbed by the green plants. The yield of the crops will increase, and their flavour will improve. Moreover, we will minimize the possibility for occurrence of forest fires and will considerably improve people’s health.
As mentioned earlier, everything the mass media continue to publish about the capacity of СО2 to absorb the thermal radiation of the Earth and return it is a premeditated lie. Of course, all gases according to their thermal capacity absorb the thermal radiation of the Earth and the water. However, when heated, gases expand and flow upwards, and this causes a decrease in their temperature. To cut a long story short, all atmospheric gases contain heat, but they can heat with it only the colder layers of the air, and they are located above, and not below them. Therefore, greenhouse gases do no exist in nature.