- THE BIRTH OF THE OZONE LAYER

In the regions of the magnetic poles, the streams of water vapours with oxygen and other gases dissolved in them cross the streams of the charged particles.

In the area of the northern MF, as a result of collisions with the electrons, moving at a cosmic velocity, there happen dissociation of the oxygen molecules, ionisation of the atoms and formation of ozone. At this point, the most important to OL process occurs. Due to its diamagnetic properties the ozone molecules start being repelled by MF from the moment of its formation. In addition, as ozone is 1.5 times heavier than oxygen, it tries to go downwards. However, this is unsuccessful. For the force lines of the Earth’s magnetic field, the diamagnetic ozone is a foreign non-transparent substance and they aim at pushing it out of the field. What happens from there on, we all know. The Earth’s magnetic field only manages to free from the ozone the area around MF and send the ozone into the stratosphere at low heights. The water arriving here together with the oxygen condenses and falls downwards in the form of snow. The condensation heat goes into space through the hole in the ozone layer.

Thus, OL forms in the northern hemisphere and in it the ozone hole is relatively small. The total ozone content in the circumpolar space reaches 600 DU. Unlike the pole, the amount of ozone in the tropical zone is much smaller – about 260 – 270 DU. Nevertheless, the scientists continue to claim that ozone is formed in the tropics, where the solar radiation is the most intense, and from there it is transferred, in an unclear manner, to the higher latitudes. And some still believe that!

The picture in the region of the southern MF is much different. There, intense dissociation of molecules, ionisation of oxygen atoms and formation of ozone also occur. The nature of the particles arriving here makes the difference. Actually, the protons are nothing but nuclei of hydrogen atoms, and the α-particles are helium nuclei. They join the electrons released during the oxygen ionisation and form atoms. Helium is ejected into space, and the atomic hydrogen engages in a reaction with the ozone, forming water. The ozone molecules which survived this bacchanalian are repelled by MF, and the force lines of the field lift them up in the stratosphere. Thus, an OL over the southern ОС hemisphere is formed and a large hole around the southern MF. The water which formed and the water taken here by the oxygen condense. As a result, precipitation in the amount from 1,250 to 2,500 km3 for one year forms in Antarctica. The heat released from the condensation is radiated into space through the ozone hole.

This specific feature is also demonstrated in the final result. Antarctica is poorer in oxygen, and the southern hemisphere is poorer in ozone. If in it the total ozone content is calculated as 292.1 DU, in the northern hemisphere, although there the atmosphere contains more ozone-depleting substances, it is equal to 301.6 DU.

What about the fate of the gases taken here by the water vapours? The American scientists have made an enormous contribution to the study of the formation and dynamics of development of the Antarctic hole in OL. They did not know that the ozone hole around the southern MF has existed for tens of thousands, and possibly millions of years. For them, it was a secret that the human activity has no influence on its size and that they are determined only by the solar activity. Nevertheless, with the help of equipment installed on the McMurdo station and in special planes performing flights over Antarctica in the period 1985 – 1987, the scientists tried to prove the influence of the CFCs on the formation of the ozone hole. To this end, they measured not only the ozone content but also that of other gases. The atmospheric air was found to contain Н2О, ClO, OClO, ClONO2, HCl, BrO, HF, NO, NO2, HNO3, NO4, CH4, CCl4, CH4CCl and freons 11 and 12. These results helped the American scientists to lay the entire blame for the occurrence of the ozone hole on freons. However, they help us understand that the destruction of OL begins at the moment of ozone formation.

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