- HOW THE EARTH’S OZONE LAYER IS FORMED

It will not be unnecessary to repeat the old truth that the Maker of this world has provided for everything for its flawless functioning. We only had to realise this as as not to destroy what had been created. However, it seems we cannot live in a different way. The sad example of that is the Earth’s ozone layer.

OL is formed with the joint efforts of four participants. These are the Earth’s magnetic field, the charged particles of the solar wind, oxygen and water. In the event even one of the participants is missing, the process stops immediately.

The first participant in this process in terms of degree of importance is the Earth’s magnetic field. As the second one, we can bravely nominate the solar wind, continuously blowing the magnetic poles of our planet; the third one is oxygen and the fourth one is water. In principle, we think we know everything about each one of this group of four, but to understand how their ensemble works, we need to remember some details once again.

 The Earth’s magnetic field /MF/

            The magnetic dipole is located deep in the subsoil. For this reason, its force lines, going out of and before entering the other pole, cross enormous areas of the Earth’s surface. In principle, these places are known to everyone. In the northern hemisphere, this is the zone of Aurora Borealis, and in the southern one – a huge hole in OL. What everyone does not know is that near the Southern MP there also occurs an aurora, and the Northern MF is also located in the middle of an ozone hole.

As described in detail in the article Capture of the Charged Particles of the Solar Wind, the Earth’s magnetic field captures the charged particles and sends them to MF along spirals past the force lines of the field. The electrons head for the Northern, and the protons to the Southern MF. The velocity of movement of the protons is 1-2 million km/h, and that of the electrons – ten times greater. In the region of MF, the force lines become vertical, and from this moment on the situation changes. Both the ions and the electrons start moving towards each other. Thus, they fall under the influence of an incredibly enormous force of mutual attraction of particles with opposite charges, which increases in inverse proportion to the distance between them.

 

Oxygen

            I feel uneasy writing about oxygen. Everyone of us has studied it at school and perhaps has received excellent marks. However, it is necessary. As people in the antiquity said, “Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is truth”.

It appears that this element has several unique properties, which are known only to narrow specialists. First, oxygen is paramagnetic, and this means that it can be attracted to MF. It is exactly the magnetic properties that distinguish oxygen from all other gaseous elements. In addition, oxygen has the lowest ionisation potential, and its ionised atoms bind and form ozone.

Ozone, however, is even more unique. First, it is diamagnetic. Ozone is not attracted by MF; it is repelled by it. Moreover, it is also non-transparent for the magnetic force lines, it is as if it were made of iron. For them, ozone is like a wall and the force lines always try to push it out of the magnetic field.

And the second important characteristic. As we already know, all atmospheric gases are transparent. The exception to this rule is just one – ozone. Its colour is blue. Owing to the blue colour, OL, like an enormous mirror, reflects the sunrays, protecting the Earth’s surface from overheating. The mirror reflection of the sunrays by the atmosphere wa the thing that the Soviet astronaut A. A. Leonov not only observed, but also drew in 1965. S. P. Korolev, a rocket engineer and spacecraft designer, knowing his penchant for drawing, advised him to take crayons with him during the flight

At the outer limit of the atmosphere there come 1.38 kW/m2 of solar energy. Using measuremrnts, it was established that at the equator, about 1 kW reaches a square metre of the Earth’s surface. When moving to the poles, the angle of falling of the sunrays increases and the amount of reflected sunlight increases, too. In our middle latitudes, OL allows the penetration of about 300W to a square metre of the Earth’s surface. Respectively, the average temperature decreases, and reaches values under zero in the region of the pole.

I believe everypne will agree with this aft

grafika

er considering the graphs below.

 

 

 Spectrum of elimination of the solar energy by OL

1. Solar radiation at the outer limit of the atmosphere.

2. Solar radiation at sea level in the tropics.

3. Solar radiation at a latitude of 400

4. Solar radiation at a latitude of 600

5. Black-body radiation at 5,900К.

 

These graphs demonstrate how the energy of the sunrays reaching the ground level subsides, from the equator to the pole. They also show the window of transparency of the atmosphere for the visible light 0.39 – 0.76 mkm, the areas of selective absorption of the energy of ultraviolet rays by the ozone 0.01 – 0.39 mkm, and the absorption of infrared energy 0.76 – 3,000 mkm by other atmospheric gases.

Unlike the Earth, on Jupiter, which has no OL, the temperature at the pole is only a few degrees lower than that at the equator.

The mysterious ways of water

            The fact that the plants absorb water together with СО2 and release oxygen in the process of photosynthesis is known even by children. However, very few know that together with the oxygen from the pores of the leaves there comes an enormous stream of evaporated water. For example, 1 hectare of cereals release about 2 million kg of water suring the vegetation period, and 1 hectare of cabbage release even 8 million kg. This process is called transpiration and specialists have long been trying to explain this obvious inconsistence.

The reason, however, is as complex to understand as is simple. If we remember that our planet has to preserve at any cost the magnetic properties of its core in order to perform its galactic obligation, everything will become crystal clear. In the first place, the amount of energy coming from the Sun has to decrease, and second, an opportunity should be provided to the heat produced in the subsoil to return to space. These problems can be solved only with the help of OL, and for its formation the produced oxygen needs to be continuously transported to MF. To solve this problem, the vegetable kingdom was created. First, it produces oxygen, and through the transpiration of the moisture it can lift it as high as the end of the troposphere.

However, the oxygen solubility in water is insignificantly small, and that is why the plants have to evaporate such great amounts of water. Luckily, water as a universal solvent exports to the upper limit of the troposphere other gases forming near the Earth’s surface, including those gases which owing to their great specific weight could not break away from the ground in any other way. Among them are freons, chlorine and sulphur oxides.

When rising in the air, the temperature of the gases drops, but the paramagnetic properties of the oxygen increase. Moreover, they increase to such an extent that at some point it becomes the main driving force, carrying away the water vapours with the gases dissolved in it to MF. Owing to this process, the gas composition of the troposphere remains constant in all its volume, and we are given the opportunity to live and breathe comparatively clean air. Or at least where there are green plants.

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